2004 Jan 15;194(2):169-79.
of Molecular and
Clinical Medicine, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping,
organic compound ethylmercurithiosalicylate (thimerosal), which is
primarily present in the tissues as ethylmercury, has caused illness
and several deaths due to erroneous handling when used as a
disinfectant or as a preservative in medical preparations. Lately,
possible health effects of thimerosal in childhood vaccines have been
much discussed. Thimerosal is a well-known sensitizing agent,
although usually of no clinical relevance. In rare cases, thimerosal
has caused systemic immune reactions including acrodynia. We have
studied if thimerosal might induce the systemic autoimmune condition
observed in genetically susceptible mice after exposure to inorganic
mercury. A.SW mice were exposed to 1.25-40 mg thimerosal/l drinking
water for 70 days. Antinucleolar antibodies, targeting the 34-kDa
protein fibrillarin, developed in a dose-related pattern and first
appeared after 10 days in the two highest dose groups. The lowest
observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for antifibrillarin antibodies
was 2.5 mg thimerosal/l, corresponding to an absorbed dose of 147
microg Hg/kg bw and a concentration of 21 and 1.9 microg Hg/g in the
kidney and lymph nodes, respectively. The same LOAEL was found for
tissue immune-complex deposits. The total serum concentration of IgE,
IgG1, and IgG2a showed a significant dose-related increase in
thimerosal-treated mice, with a LOAEL of 5 mg thimerosal/l for IgG1
and IgE, and 20 mg thimerosal/l for IgG2a. The polyclonal B-cell
activation showed a significant dose-response relationship with a
LOAEL of 10 mg thimerosal/l. Therefore,
mice a systemic
autoimmune syndrome very similar to that seen after treatment with
inorganic mercury, although a higher absorbed dose of Hg is needed
is different from the
weaker and more restricted autoimmune reaction observed after
treatment with an equipotent dose of methylmercury.
14736497 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
is the significance of these finding re: the doses of thimerosal
infants and children have received?
mouse strain dependent.
L and Dawn Greene Infectious Disease Laboratory, Department of
Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University,
New York, NY 10032, USA. email@example.com
developing brain is uniquely susceptible to the neurotoxic hazard
posed by mercurials. Host differences in maturation, metabolism,
nutrition, sex, and autoimmunity influence outcomes. How
population-based variability affects the safety of the
ethylmercury-containing vaccine preservative, thimerosal, is unknown.
Reported increases in the prevalence of autism, a highly heritable
neuropsychiatric condition, are intensifying public focus on
environmental exposures such as thimerosal. Immune profiles and
family history in autism are frequently consistent with autoimmunity.
We hypothesized that autoimmune propensity influences outcomes in
mice following thimerosal challenges that mimic routine childhood
delay; reduced locomotion;
exaggerated response to novelty; and densely packed, hyperchromic
hippocampal neurons with altered glutamate receptors and
transporters. Strains resistant to autoimmunity, C57BL/6J and
BALB/cJ, were not susceptible. These findings implicate genetic
influences and provide a model for investigating thimerosal-related
15184908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2004 Jan 15;195(1):77-84.
vaccines, on intracellular Ca2+
concentration of rat cerebellar neurons.
Integrated Arts and Sciences, The
University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502, Japan.
effect of thimerosal, an organomercurial preservative in vaccines, on
cerebellar neurons dissociated from 2-week-old rats was compared with
those of methylmercury using a flow cytometer with appropriate
fluorescent dyes. Thimerosal and methylmercury at concentrations
ranging from 0.3 to 10 microM increased the intracellular
concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in a concentration-dependent manner.
The potency of 10 microM thimerosal to increase the [Ca2+]i was less
than that of 10 microM methylmercury. Their effects on the [Ca2+]i
were greatly attenuated, but not completely suppressed, under
external Ca(2+)-free condition, suggesting a possibility that both
agents increase membrane Ca2+ permeability and release Ca2+ from
intracellular calcium stores. The effect of 10 microM thimerosal was
not affected by simultaneous application of 30 microM L-cysteine
whereas that of 10 microM methylmercury was significantly suppressed.
The potency of thimerosal was similar to that of methylmercury in the
presence of L-cysteine. Both agents at 1 microM or more similarly
decreased the cellular content of glutathione in a
concentration-dependent manner, suggesting an increase in oxidative
cytotoxic actions on cerebellar
granule neurons dissociated from 2-week-old rats and its potency is
almost similar to that of methylmercury.
14698570 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
thimerosal-containing childhood immunizations: a
authors previously published the first epidemiological study from the
United States associating thimerosal from childhood vaccines with
neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) based upon assessment of the
Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). A number of years
have gone by since their previous analysis of the VAERS. The present
study was undertaken to determine whether the previously observed
effect between thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and NDs are
still apparent in the VAERS as children have had a chance to further
mature and potentially be diagnosed with additional NDs. In the
present study, a cohort of children receiving thimerosal-containing
diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison
to a cohort of children receiving thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines
administered from 1997 through 2000 based upon an assessment of
adverse events reported to the VAERS were evaluated. It was
determined that there were significantly increased odds ratios (ORs)
for autism (OR = 1.8, p < .05), mental retardation (OR = 2.6, p <
.002), speech disorder (OR = 2.1, p < .02), personality disorders
(OR = 2.6, p < .01), and thinking abnormality (OR = 8.2, p <
.01) adverse events reported to the VAERS following
thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free
DTaP vaccines. Potential confounders and reporting biases were found
to be minimal in this assessment of the VAERS. It was observed, even
though the media has reported a potential association between autism
and thimerosal exposure, that the other NDs analyzed in this
assessment of the VAERS had significantly higher ORs than autism
following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to
thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. The
provides additional epidemiological evidence supporting
previous epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence that
administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines in the United States
resulted in a significant number of children developing NDs.
15764492 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2004 Mar;10(3):PI33-9. Epub 2004 Mar 1.
comparative evaluation of the effects of MMR immunization and mercury
doses from thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines on the population
prevalence of autism.
Silver Spring, MD, USA.
purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of MMR immunization
and mercury from thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines on the
prevalence of autism.
of the Biological Surveillance Summaries of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Department of Education
datasets, and the CDC's yearly live birth estimates were undertaken
was determined that there was a close correlation between mercury
doses from thimerosal--containing childhood vaccines and the
prevalence of autism from the late 1980s through the mid-1990s. In
contrast, there was a potential correlation between the number of
primary pediatric measles-containing vaccines administered and the
prevalence of autism during the 1980s. In addition, it was found that
there were statistically significant odds ratios for the development
of autism following increasing doses of mercury from
thimerosal-containing vaccines (birth cohorts: 1985 and 1990-1995) in
comparison to a baseline measurement (birth cohort: 1984). The
contribution of thimerosal from childhood vaccines (>50% effect)
was greater than MMR vaccine on the prevalence of autism observed in
this study agree with a number of previously published
studies. These studies have shown that there is biological
plausibility and epidemiological evidence showing a direct
relationship between increasing doses of mercury from
thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders, and
measles-containing vaccines and serious neurological disorders.
It is recommended that thimerosal be removed from all vaccines, and
additional research be undertaken to produce a MMR vaccine with an
improved safety profile.
14976450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Immunopathol Pharmacol.
and dietary peptides binding to lymphocyte receptors
and tissue enzymes are major instigators of autoimmunity in autism.
Comparative Immunology, Dept. Neurobiology, UCLA Medical Center, Los
Angeles, CA, USA. DrAri@msn.com
complex autoimmune diseases, genetic and environmental
factors including diet, infection and xenobiotics play a critical
role in the development of autism. In this study, we postulated that
infectious agent antigens such as streptokinase, dietary peptides
(gliadin and casein) and ethyl mercury (xenobiotic) bind to different
lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzyme (DPP IV or CD26). We assessed
this hypothesis first by measuring IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies
against CD26, CD69, streptokinase (SK), gliadin and casein peptides
and against ethyl mercury bound to human serum albumin in patients
with autism. A significant percentage of children with autism
developed anti-SK, anti-gliadin and casein peptides and anti-ethyl
mercury antibodies, concomitant with the appearance of anti-CD26 and
anti-CD69 autoantibodies. These antibodies are synthesized as a
result of SK, gliadin, casein and ethyl mercury binding to CD26 and
CD69, indicating that they are specific. Immune absorption
demonstrated that only specific antigens, like CD26, were capable of
significantly reducing serum anti-CD26 levels. However, for direct
demonstration of SK, gliadin, casein and ethyl mercury to CD26 or
CD69, microtiter wells were coated with CD26 or CD69 alone or in
combination with SK, gliadin, casein or ethyl mercury and then
reacted with enzyme labeled rabbit anti-CD26 or anti-CD69. Adding
these molecules to CD26 or CD69 resulted in 28-86% inhibition of CD26
or CD69 binding to anti-CD26 or anti-CD69 antibodies. The highest %
binding of these antigens or peptides to CD26 or CD69 was attributed
to SK and the lowest to casein peptides. We,
that bacterial antigens (SK), dietary peptides
(gliadin, casein) and Thimerosal (ethyl mercury) in individuals with
pre-disposing HLA molecules, bind to CD26 or CD69 and induce
antibodies against these molecules. In conclusion, this study is
apparently the first to demonstrate that dietary peptides, bacterial
toxins and xenobiotics bind to lymphocyte receptors and/or tissue
enzymes, resulting in autoimmune reaction in children with autism.
14611720 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2003 Aug 15;75(16):4120-4.
ethylmercury, and inorganic mercury in mouse
tissues, following administration of thimerosal, by species-specific
isotope dilution GC-inductively coupled plasma-MS.
of Chemistry, Umeå University, S-901 87 Umeå,
standards were used to synthesize CH3(200)Hg+ and
C2H5(199)Hg+ using Grignard reagents. These species were employed for
isotope dilution GC-ICPMS to study uptake and biotransformation of
ethylmercury in mice treated with thimerosal, (sodium
ethylmercurithiosalicylate) 10 mg L(-1) in drinking water ad libitum
for 1, 2.5, 6, or 14 days. Prior to analysis, samples were spiked
with aqueous solutions of CH3(200)Hg+, C2H5(199)Hg+, and 201Hg2+ and
then digested in 20% tetramethylammonium hydroxide and extracted at
pH 9 with DDTC/toluene. Extracted mercury species were reacted with
butylmagnesium chloride to form butylated derivatives. Absolute
detection limits for CH3Hg+, C2H5Hg+, and Hg2+ were 0.4, 0.2, and 0.6
pg on the basis of 3sigma of five separate blanks. Up to 9% of the
C2H5Hg+ was decomposed to Hg2+ during sample preparation, and it is
therefore crucial to use a species-specific internal standard when
determining ethylmercury. No demethylation, methylation, or
ethylation during sample preparation was detected. The
of thimerosal was rapidly taken up in the
organs of the mice (kidney, liver, and mesenterial lymph nodes), and
concentrations of C2H5Hg+ as well as Hg2+ increased over the 14 days
of thimerosal treatment.
This shows that C2H5Hg+ in mice to a large degree is degraded to
Hg2+. Increased concentrations of CH3Hg+ were also observed, which
was found to be due to impurities in the thimerosal.
14632125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
assessment of the impact of thimerosal on childhood
Genetic Centers of America, 14 Redgate Court, Silver Spring, MD
prevalence of autism in the US has risen from 1 in approximately 2500
in the mid-1980s to 1 in approximately 300 children in the mid-1990s.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether mercury from
thimerosal in childhood vaccines contributed to neurodevelopmental
disorders. Neurodevelopmental disorder dose-response curves for
increasing mercury doses of thimerosal in childhood vaccines were
determined based upon examination of the Vaccine Adverse Events
Reporting System (VAERS) database and the 2001 US' Department of
Education Report. The instantaneous dosage of mercury children
received in comparison to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s
maximum permissible dose for the oral ingestion of methylmercury was
also determined. The dose-response curves showed increases in odds
ratios of neurodevelopmental disorders from both the VAERS and US
Department of Education data closely linearly correlated with
increasing doses of mercury from thimerosal-containing childhood
vaccines and that for overall odds ratios statistical significance
was achieved. Similar slopes and linear regression coefficients for
autism odds ratios in VAERS and the US Department of Education data
help to mutually validate each other. Controls employed in the VAERS
and US Department of Education data showed minimal biases. The
here shows that the occurrence of
neurodevelopmental disorders following thimerosal-containing
childhood vaccines does not appear to be coincidental.
14534046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children.
autism have increased sharply in the United States and the
United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is
increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines,
but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of
cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy. Differential
rates of postnatal mercury elimination may explain why similar
gestational and infant exposures produce variable neurological
effects. First baby haircut samples were obtained from 94 children
diagnosed with autism using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV) criteria and 45 age- and
gender-matched controls. Information on diet, dental amalgam
fillings, vaccine history, Rho D immunoglobulin administration, and
autism symptom severity was collected through a maternal survey
questionnaire and clinical observation. Hair mercury levels in the
autistic group were 0.47 ppm versus 3.63 ppm in controls, a
significant difference. The mothers in the autistic group had
significantly higher levels of mercury exposure through Rho D
immunoglobulin injections and amalgam fillings than control mothers.
Within the autistic group, hair mercury levels varied significantly
across mildly, moderately, and severely autistic children, with mean
group levels of 0.79, 0.46, and 0.21 ppm, respectively. Hair mercury
levels among controls were significantly correlated with the number
of the mothers' amalgam fillings and their fish consumption as well
as exposure to mercury through childhood vaccines, correlations that
were absent in the autistic group. Hair excretion patterns among
autistic infants were significantly reduced relative to control.
doubt on the efficacy of traditional hair analysis as a
measure of total mercury exposure in a subset of the population. In
light of the biological plausibility of mercury's role in
neurodevelopmental disorders, the present study provides further
insight into one possible mechanism by which early mercury exposures
could increase the risk of autism.
12933322 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Biol Med (Maywood).
thimerosal-containing vaccines: a brief
Genetic Centers of America, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905, USA.
initially highly skeptical that differences in the concentrations of
thimerosal in vaccines would have any effect on the incidence rate of
neurodevelopmental disorders after childhood immunization. This study
presents the first epidemiologic evidence, based upon tens of
millions of doses of vaccine administered in the United States, that
associates increasing thimerosal from vaccines with
neurodevelopmental disorders. Specifically, an analysis of the
Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database showed
statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism (relative risk
[RR] = 6.0), mental retardation (RR = 6.1), and speech disorders (RR
= 2.2) after thimerosal-containing diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular
pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP
vaccines. The male/female ratio indicated that autism (17) and speech
disorders (2.3) were reported more in males than females after
thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines, whereas mental retardation (1.2)
was more evenly reported among male and female vaccine recipients.
Controls were employed to determine if biases were present in the
data, but none were found. It was determined that overall adverse
reactions were reported in similar-aged populations after
thimerosal-containing DTaP (2.4 +/- 3.2 years old) and
thimerosal-free DTaP (2.1 +/- 2.8 years old) vaccinations. Acute
control adverse reactions such as deaths (RR = 1.0), vasculitis (RR =
1.2), seizures (RR = 1.6), ED visits (RR = 1.4), total adverse
reactions (RR = 1.4), and gastroenteritis (RR = 1.1) were reported
similarly after thimerosal-containing and thimerosal-free DTaP
neurodevelopmental disorders and
thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines was found, but additional studies
should be conducted to confirm and extend this study.
12773696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article
2003 Jun 6;537(2):151-68.
of different compounds in CHO K5
cells with the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis assay).
were used to study the genotoxic and
cytotoxic properties of the following eight compounds: chloral
hydrate, colchicine, hydroquinone, DL-menthol, mitomycin C, sodium
iodoacetate, thimerosal and valinomycin. Colchicine,
thimerosal induced genotoxic
The other compounds were found to be inactive. The compounds were
tested in the standard comet assay as well as in the all cell comet
assay (recovery of floating cells after treatment), designed in our
laboratory for adherently-growing cells. This latter procedure proved
to be more adequate for the assessment of the cytotoxicity for some
of the compounds tested (hydroquinone, DL-menthol, thimerosal,
valinomycin). Colchicine was positive in the standard comet assay (3h
treatment) and in the all cell comet assay (24h treatment). Sodium
iodoacetate and thimerosal were positive in the standard and/or the
all cell comet assay. Chloral hydrate, hydroquinone, sodium
iodoacetate, mitomycin C and thimerosal were also tested in the
modified comet assay using lysed cells. Mitomycin C and thimerosal
showed effects in this assay, whereas sodium iodoacetate was
inactive. This indicates that it does not induce direct DNA damage.
Compounds that are known or suspected to form DNA-DNA cross-links or
DNA-protein cross-links (chloral hydrate, hydroquinone, mitomycin C
and thimerosal) were checked for their ability to reduce ethyl
methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced DNA damage. This mode of action could
be demonstrated for mitomycin C only.
12787820 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2003 Aug;74(2):361-8. Epub 2003 May 28.
membrane damage, and cell
death in cultured human neurons and fibroblasts.
Medicine, 6560 Fannin Suite 944,
Houston, Texas 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
used as a preservative in biomedical
preparations. Little is known about the reactions of human neuronal
and skin cells to its micro- and nanomolar concentrations, which can
occur after using thimerosal-containing products. A useful
combination of fluorescent techniques for the assessment of
thimerosal toxicity is introduced. Short-term thimerosal toxicity was
investigated in cultured human cerebral cortical neurons and in
normal human fibroblasts. Cells were incubated with 125-nM to
250-microM concentrations of thimerosal for 45 min to 24 h. A 4',
6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) dye exclusion test
was used to identify nonviable cells and terminal transferase-based
nick-end labeling (TUNEL) to label DNA damage. Detection of active
caspase-3 was performed in live cell cultures using a cell-permeable
fluorescent caspase inhibitor. The morphology of fluorescently
labeled nuclei was analyzed. After
thimerosal toxicity was observed at 2 microM
based on the manual detection of the fluorescent attached cells and
at a 1-microM level with the more sensitive GENios Plus
Multi-Detection Microplate Reader with Enhanced Fluorescence. The
lower limit did not change after 24 h of incubation. Cortical neurons
demonstrated higher sensitivity to thimerosal compared to
fibroblasts. The first sign of toxicity was an increase in membrane
permeability to DAPI after 2 h of incubation with 250 microM
thimerosal. A 6-h incubation resulted in failure to exclude DAPI,
generation of DNA breaks, caspase-3 activation, and development of
morphological signs of apoptosis. We demonstrate that thimerosal in
micromolar concentrations rapidly induce membrane and DNA damage and
initiate caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human neurons and
We conclude that a proposed combination of fluorescent techniques can
be useful in analyzing the toxicity of thimerosal.
12773768 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1892749Free PMC
2003 Jan;77(1):50-5. Epub 2002 Nov 6.
B block micronucleus test
with human lymphocytes.
37, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. email@example.com
in health care products, especially in
vaccines. Due to possible adverse health effects, investigations on
its metabolism and toxicity are urgently needed. An in vivo study on
chronic toxicity of thimerosal in rats was inconclusive and reports
on genotoxic effects in various in vitro systems were contradictory.
Therefore, we reinvestigated thimerosal in the cytochalasin B block
micronucleus test. Glutathione S-transferases were proposed to be
involved in the detoxification of thimerosal or its decomposition
products. Since the outcome of genotoxicity studies can be dependent
on the metabolic competence of the cells used, we were additionally
interested whether polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases
(GSTM1, GSTT1, or GSTP1) may influence the results of the
micronucleus test with primary human lymphocytes. Blood samples of
six healthy donors of different glutathione S-transferase genotypes
were included in the study. At least two independent experiments were
performed for each blood donor. Significant induction of micronuclei
was seen at concentrations between 0.05-0.5 micro g/ml in 14 out of
16 experiments. Thus,
at concentrations which can occur at
the injection site.
Toxicity and toxicity-related elevation of micronuclei was seen at
and above 0.6 micro g/ml thimerosal. Marked individual and
intraindividual variations in the in vitro response to thimerosal
among the different blood donors occurred. However, there was no
association observed with any of the glutathione S-transferase
in the cytochalasin B block
micronucleus test with human lymphocytes. These data raise some
concern on the widespread use of thimerosal.
12491041 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
h e U C I U n d e r g r a d u a t e R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l
Induces Programmed Cell Death of Neuronal Cells via
in the Mitochondrial Environment
a preservative and anti-microbial agent used in vaccines, ophthalmic
solutions, and cosmetics, is a mercury-containing compound that has
raised public concern due to its potentially harmful effects. While
past studies have implicated mercurial compounds in apoptosis, or
programmed cell death, in human T-cells and cells of the central
nervous system, no studies have examined the specific effect of
thimerosal on neuronal cells, despite evidence that mercurial
compounds readily cross the bloodbrain barrier. This study examines
whether thimerosal induces apoptosis in neuronal cells, and, if so,
via which mechanism. To this end, neuronal cells were incubated in
the absence and presence of thimerosal at various concentrations for
various exposure times and then examined for cell viability, specific
morphological changes associated with apoptosis, and changes in the
mitochondrial environment. Thimerosal decreased neuronal cell
viability in time- and dose-dependent trials, with 90% viability at 2
hr, decreasing to 60% viability at 24 hr (1 μM); at 5 μM
thimerosal, viability decreased below 20% at 24 and 48 hr. Thimerosal
caused depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and enhanced
superoxide generation. At 5 μM thimerosal, cytochrome c was released
from mitochondria to the cytosol in 30% of cells at 1 hr and 85% of
cells at 3
Apoptosis-Inducing Factor was released in 40% and 90% of cells at 30
min and 1 hr, respectively. The
that thimerosal causes apoptosis via the
mitochondrial pathway and warrant continued efforts to find a
Biol Med (Maywood).
2003 Oct;228(9):991-2; discussion 993-4.
Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina 29203,
the article: “All
aside, the authors’ findings are interesting
important, as they do give some support
authors note is generally a skeptically-viewed theory
connection between thimerosal-containing
disorders. Perhaps future research
their work. In the meantime, it seems prudent for
thimerosal-free vaccines when possible.”
14530505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article
apoptosis in T cells: a
major role of mitochondrial pathway.
of Basic and Clinical
Immunology, University of California, Irvine 92697, USA.
major source of thimerosal (ethyl mercury thiosalicylate) exposure is
childhood vaccines. It is believed that the children are exposed to
significant accumulative dosage of thimerosal during the first 2
years of life via immunization. Because of health-related concerns
for exposure to mercury, we examined the effects of thimerosal on the
biochemical and molecular steps of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis
in Jurkat T cells. Thimerosal
component of thimerosal), in a
concentration-dependent manner, induced apoptosis in T cells as
determined by TUNEL and propidium iodide assays, suggesting a role of
mercury in T cell apoptosis. Apoptosis was associated with
depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, release of cytochrome c and
apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria, and activation
of caspase-9 and caspase-3, but not of caspase-8. In addition,
thimerosal in a concentration-dependent manner inhibited the
expression of XIAP, cIAP-1 but did not influence cIAP-2 expression.
Furthermore, thimerosal enhanced intracellular reactive oxygen
species and reduced intracellular glutathione (GSH). Finally,
exogenous glutathione protected T cells from thimerosal-induced
apoptosis by upregulation of XIAP and cIAP1 and by inhibiting
activation of both caspase-9 and caspase-3. These data suggest that
thimerosal induces apoptosis in T cells via mitochondrial pathway by
inducing oxidative stress and depletion of GSH.
12140745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article
challenge to integrative medicine. Part: 1: The knowledge
the autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), is a
neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by socially aloof behavior
and impairment of language and social interaction. Its prevalence has
surged in recent years. Advanced functional brain imaging has
confirmed pervasive neurologic involvement. Parent involvement in
autism management has accelerated understanding and treatment. Often
accompanied by epilepsy, cognitive deficits, or other neurologic
impairment, autism manifests in the first three years of life and
persists into adulthood. Its etiopathology is poorly defined but
likely multifactorial with heritability playing a major role.
Prenatal toxic exposures (teratogens) are consistent with autism
spectrum symptomatology. Frequent
live virus and toxic mercurial content (thimerosal)
are a plausible etiologic factor. Autistic children frequently have
abnormalities of sulfoxidation and sulfation that compromise liver
detoxification, which may contribute to the high body burden of
xenobiotics frequently found. Frequent copper-zinc imbalance implies
metallothionein impairment that could compound the negative impact of
sulfur metabolism impairments on detoxification and on intestinal
lining integrity. Intestinal hyperpermeability manifests in autistic
children as dysbiosis, food intolerances, and exorphin (opioid)
intoxication, most frequently from casein and gluten. Immune system
abnormalities encompass derangement of antibody production, skewing
of T cell subsets, aberrant cytokine profiles, and other impairments
consistent with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity.
Coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Part 2 of this review
will attempt to consolidate progress in integrative management of
autism, aimed at improving independence and lifespan for people with
12197782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article
form of mercury poisoning.
Research, Cranford, New Jersey 07901, USA.
is a syndrome characterized by impairments in social relatedness and
communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory
dysfunction. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that autism may
affect 1 in 150 US children. Exposure to mercury can cause immune,
sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to
traits defining or associated with autism, and the similarities
extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry.
Thimerosal, a preservative added to many vaccines, has become a major
source of mercury in children who, within their first two years, may
have received a quantity of mercury that exceeds safety guidelines. A
medical literature and US government data suggests that:
(i) many cases of idiopathic autism are induced by early mercury
exposure from thimerosal; (ii) this type of autism represents an
unrecognized mercurial syndrome; and (iii) genetic and non-genetic
factors establish a predisposition whereby thimerosal's adverse
effects occur only in some children.
11339848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
why so long coming?
Rotterdam-Dijkzigt, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
inorganic mercurial thiomersal (merthiolate) has been used as an
effective preservative in numerous medical and non-medical products
since the early 1930s. Both the potential toxicity of thiomersal and
sensitisation to thiomersal in relation to the application of
thiomersal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulins, especially in
children, have been debated in the literature. The
pharmacological and biological
products are relatively non-toxic, but probably not in utero and
during the first 6 months of life. The developing brain of the fetus
is most susceptible to thiomersal and, therefore, women of
childbearing age, in particular, should not receive
Definitive data of doses at which developmental effects occur are not
available. Moreover, revelation of subtle effects of toxicity needs
long term observation of children. The
molecule appears to be the
prominent sensitiser. The prevalence of thiomersal hypersensitivity
in mostly selected populations varies up to 18%, but higher figures
have been reported.
The overall exposure to thiomersal differs considerably between
countries. In many cases a positive routine patch test to thiomersal
should be considered an accidental finding without or, probably more
accurately, with low clinical relevance. In practice, some preventive
measures can be taken with respect to thiomersal hypersensitivity.
However, with regard to the debate on primary sensitisation during
childhood and renewed attention for a reduction of children's
exposure to mercury from all sources, the use of thiomersal should
preferably be eliminated or at least be reduced. In 1999 the
manufacturers of vaccines and immunoglobulins in the US and Europe
were approached with this in mind. The potential toxicity in children
seems to be of much more concern to them than the hidden sensitising
properties of thiomersal. In The Netherlands, unlike many other
countries, the exposure to thiomersal from pharmaceutical sources has
already been reduced. Replacement
should have a high priority in all
11368282 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
in hair from infant immunizations: cause for
Minds, Cranford, NJ 07016, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
considered one of the worlds most toxic metals. Current
thinking suggests that exposure to mercury occurs primarily from
seafood contamination and rare catastrophic events. Recently, another
common source of exposure has been identified. Thimerosal (TMS), a
preservative found in many infant vaccines, contains 49.6% ethyl
mercury (EtHg) by weight and typically contributes 25 microg of EtHg
per dose of infant vaccine. As part of an ongoing review, the Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) announced in 1999 that infants who
received multiple TMS-preserved vaccines may have been exposed to
cumulative Hg in excess of Federal safety guidelines. According to
the centers for disease control (CDC) recommended immunization
schedule, infants may have been exposed to 12.5 microg Hg at birth,
62.5 microg EtHg at 2 months, 50 microg EtHg at 4 months, 62.5 microg
EtHg at 6 months, and 50 microg EtHg at approximately 18 months, for
a total of 237.5 microg EtHg during the first 18 months of life, if
all TMS-containing vaccines were administered. Neurobehavioral
alterations, especially to the more susceptible fetus and infant, are
known to occur after relatively low dose exposures to organic mercury
compounds. In effort, to further elucidate the levels of ethyl
mercury resulting from exposure to vaccinal TMS, we estimated hair Hg
concentrations expected to result from the recommended CDC schedule
utilizing a one compartment pharmacokinetic model. This model was
developed to predict hair concentrations from acute exposure to
methymercury (MeHg) in fish. Modeled hair Hg concentrations in
infants exposed to vaccinal TMS are in excess of the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) safety guidelines of 1 ppm for up to 365
days, with several peak concentrations within this period. More
sensitive individuals and those with additional sources of exposure
would have higher Hg concentrations. Given
to low levels of mercury during critical stages of
development has been associated with neurological disorders in
children, including ADD, learning difficulties, and speech delays,
the predicted hair Hg concentration resulting from childhood
immunizations is cause for concern. Based on these findings, the
impact which vaccinal mercury has had on the health of American
children warrants further investigation.
11770890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Arch Allergy Immunol.
National Institute of Health, Tokyo,
effects of injection of thimerosal solution on nonsensitized animals
was investigated. Intrafootpad injection of thimerosal solution in
nonsensitized mice resulted in a swelling response which peaked 1 h
after injection and lasted for more than 24 h. Histopathological
examination showed that there were severe edema and infiltration of
polymorphonuclear neutrophils at the site of injection. An increased
vascular permeability was observed after cutaneous injection of
thimerosal solution on the back of nonsensitized rats. Since mercuric
chloride and methyl mercury induced severer reactions, and
thiosalicylic acid had no effect, mercury contained in thimerosal
would have caused the reactions observed in this study. These
these hypersensitivity reactions against
thimerosal observed among patients were possibly induced by the toxic
effect of thimerosal. Therefore, thimerosal contained as a
preservative in vaccine may augment the side-effects of the
7518269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
in human lymphocytes: 10
known or suspected spindle poisons.
Territorio, Università di Pisa,
part of a coordinated EEC project to validate suitable assays for
chemically induced genomic mutations, numerical chromosomal
aberrations and spindle effects were studied in human lymphocyte
cultures exposed to cadmium chloride, chloral hydrate, colchicine,
diazepam, econazole, hydroquinone, pyrimethamine, thiabendazole,
thimerosal and vinblastine. Chromosome number analysis was carried
out after treatment for 48 and 72 h; spindle effects, i.e., increases
in the mitotic indices and c-mitoses, were analyzed in cultures
treated 5 h before fixation. Dose-related numerical chromosomal
aberrations are induced by colchicine and vinblastine, the only
chemicals that also induce c-mitotic effects in a wide range of
cadmium chloride and thimerosal
without dose-effect relationship; chloral hydrate and thimerosal
affect spindle functions while only a weak spindle effect is produced
by cadmium chloride. Tetraploid and/or endoreduplicated cells are
induced without dose-effect relationship by hydroquinone,
thiabendazole and thimerosal, all of them able to produce c-mitotic
Diazepam and econazole induce only hypodiploidy; pyrimethamine does
not induce numerical chromosomal aberrations.
7683385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
is abnormal mitosis.
hamster primary embryonic cells.
Test results of 10 chemicals.
Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis, State
University of Leiden, The Netherlands.
primary Chinese hamster embryonic cells, 10 known or suspected
aneugens supplied as a part of the EC 4th Environmental Research and
Development Programme were evaluated by the technique described by
Dulout and Natarajan (1987). The chemicals included cadmium chloride,
chloral hydrate, colchicine, diazepam, econazole, hydroquinone,
pyrimethamine, thiabendazole, thimerosal and vincristine. All
positive effect at most
of the doses tested.
The ease with which the assay is performed and reproducible results
that are obtained with the suspected compounds indicate that this in
vitro test using primary embryonic fibroblasts is a promising one for
7683384 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
in hepatitis B vaccines.
Ochsner Clinic, New Orleans, Louisiana.
in vaccines has been reported to induce persistent
local reactions, urticarial and generalized exanthematic eruptions,
and, in the case of the hepatitis B vaccine, urticaria with asthma.
The authors describe two cases of extensive reactions, one in a
patient who did not form antibodies to the principal vaccine antigen.
Although not all thimerosal-sensitive patients develop adverse
reactions to vaccines containing this material, there is a potential
risk, and the reactions can be very long lasting.
2137393 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
to the frequency of positive patch tests with mercury
Professionnelle et de l'Environnement, Université
Catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles, Belgium.
multicentric study concerning the frequency of positive allergic
patch test reactions to mercury and to thiomersal has been conducted
in France and in Belgium among 2,000 adult patients submitted to
routine patch testing. 73 (3.6 p. 100) patients had a positive patch
test to mercury and 47 (2.3 p. 100) to thiomersal, 22 (1.1 p. 100)
reacted positively to both mercurials. These
are most probably in relation with a broad use of
mercurials in both countries, as antiseptics as well as preservative
agents in topical drugs.
a careful use of mercurials, which have to be avoided when
they can be advantageously replaced by other antiseptics or
As far as cosmetics are concerned, the use of mercurials (chemical
nature and concentration) is restricted by a Recommendation of the
2974266 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Optom Physiol Opt.
effects of ophthalmic preservatives on cultured rabbit corneal
and Visual Sciences, Southern California College of
investigated the effects of the ophthalmic preservatives thimerosal
and sorbic acid on the proliferation and survival of rabbit corneal
epithelial cells in tissue culture. Normally, explants of corneal
epithelium grow vigorously during the first 7 days in culture. With
0.004% thimerosal present in the culture medium, the normal
proliferation of corneal cells is suppressed completely. When 0.1%
sorbic acid is present, proliferation is delayed and the lifespan of
the corneal cells is reduced. After a 1-h exposure to concentrations
of thimerosal of 0.0005% or greater, virtually all corneal cells
present in established cultures are killed. These
that use of ophthalmic preparations containing these
chemicals may affect the metabolic and proliferative capacity of the
corneal epithelium adversely.
3252733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
okay to inject?
allergy and vaccination reactions.
Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.
preservative in all toxoid vaccines routinely administered to
children in the UK, but exposure from other sources is uncommon.
thiomersal was demonstrated in 1%
of individuals attending the Contact Dermatitis Investigation Unit,
and 50 of these patients with positive patch tests to thiomersal were
studied. Cross-reaction with other mercurials occurred in 17 of 29
patients tested (59%). 31 of the patients replied to a questionnaire
regarding vaccination reactions, and were compared with case-controls
matched for age, sex, and site of dermatitis. 4 patients in each
group reported reactions to vaccines which contained thiomersal,
suggesting that thiomersal
not associated with an increased risk of
vaccination reactions. However, individual cases of severe reactions
to thiomersal demonstrate a need for vaccines with an alternative
3378430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1988 Apr 30;17(16):795-6.
in an infant during heparinization of an
infantile 3, CHRU de Brabois, Vandoevre.
infant developed an immediate and proven systemic
allergic reaction to mercurothiolate.
The acute accident occurred while an intracaval catheter was being
treated with a dry-frozen heparin which excipient contains
mercurothiolate. This conservative agent is present in numerous
pharmaceutical preparations for topical and systemic use.
2968567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
allergen in ophthalmology.
University of Bologna, Italy.
report 36 patients with thimerosal-induced follicular allergic
contact conjunctivitis. 18 patients had follicular conjunctivitis
without eyelid involvement, while 5 patients had follicular
conjunctivitis associated with an allergic contact dermatitis of the
eyelids; all these patients had been using thimerosal-containing eye
drops. A further 13 patients were soft contact lens wearers who
became sensitized to their own thimerosal-containing lens solutions.
All 36 patients showed a positive patch test reaction to thimerosal,
while only 1 of them reacted to an ophthalmic solution. Thimerosal
to be clinically relevant in ophthalmic
3416589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
comparative toxicology of ethyl- and methylmercury.
were compared in rats given by gastric gavage five
daily doses of 8.0 mg Hg/kg methyl- or ethylmercuric chloride or 9.6
mg Hg/kg ethylmercuric chloride. Three or 10 days after the last
treatment day rats treated with either 8.0 or 9.6 mg Hg/kg
ethylmercury had higher total or organic mercury concentrations in
blood and lower concentrations in kidneys and brain than
methylmercury-treated rats. In each of these tissues the inorganic
mercury concentration was higher after ethyl- than after
methylmercury. Weight loss relative to the expected body weight and
renal damage was higher in ethylmercury-treated rats than in rats
given equimolar doses of methylmercury. These effects became more
severe when the dose of ethylmercury was increased by 20%. Thus in
renotoxicity the renal concentration of inorganic mercury seems to be
more important than the concentration of organic or total mercury. In
methylmercury-treated rats damage and inorganic mercury deposits were
restricted to the P2 region of the proximal tubules, while in
ethylmercury-treated rats the distribution of mercury and damage was
more widespread. There was little difference in the neurotoxicities
of methylmercury and ethylmercury when effects on the dorsal root
ganglia or coordination disorders were compared. Based
criteria, an equimolar dose of ethylmercury was less
neurotoxic than methylmercury, but a 20% increase in the dose of
ethylmercury was enough to raise the sum of coordination disorder
scores slightly and ganglion damage significantly above those in
TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
4091651 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
against tetanus and tick-borne encephalitis caused by
patients with suspected adverse reactions to tetanus- or tick-borne
encephalitis-vaccines were subjected to allergy tests. In 8 of 30
patients epicutaneous and/or intracutaneous tests with merthiolate
were positive. Testing anorganic mercury, formaldehyde, aluminium
hydroxide, gentamycin and egg white (i.c. and RAST), no positive
reactions were found. After
prior to testing - merthiolate - positive patients had
suffered from local inflammatory reactions at the injection site,
fever and lymphadenopathy (four patients), urticarial (three
patients) or lichenoid exanthemas (one patient). Reviewing the
literature it is suggested that alternatively merthiolate-free
vaccines be provided for sensitized individuals.
6724907 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Optom Physiol Opt.
the concurrent use of thimerosal and tetracycline.
reaction to thimerosal which occurred when patients were
prescribed tetracyclines simultaneously.
Nine patients were identified who had been using a 0.004%
thimerosal-containing contact lens solution for over 6 months. All
varying degrees of ocular reaction (red eye,
irritation, blepharitis) apparently as a result of taking
tetracyclines concurrently. The reaction disappeared upon
discontinuance of either the thimerosal or the tetracyclines. The
hypothesis that the reaction was due to an interaction between
thimerosal and tetracyclines was confirmed in rabbits.
6681469 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
a newly described blood bank problem.
number of ABO grouping, Rh typing, antibody screening, and antibody
identification problems are associated with chemicals in blood bank
newly discovered agglutination phenomenon due to a
thimerosal (Merthiolate)-dependent agglutinin found in the serum of a
normal blood donor. Thimerosal is used as a preservative in several
low-ionic strength reagents. This agglutination phenomenon is
detected only in test systems (low-ionic-strength, albumin, saline,
ficin treated test cells) in which test cells are incubated in the
presence of thimerosal. Agglutination does not occur in the absence
of thimerosal. The thimerosal-dependent agglutinin behaves like an
IgG IgG autoantibody.
There is no evidence that the thimerosal-dependent agglutinin is
responsible for increased red cell destruction.
7090037 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
0.1% merthiolate in petrolatum showed hypersensitivity in
96 of 4647 eczema patients (2.0%) and in seven of 105 healthy
recruits (7%). There was a marked preponderance of young age classes
in the eczema group. Twelve of 41 merthiolate-positive patients
tested reacted to mercury alone, three to thiosalicylic acid alone
and one to both. The remaining 25 patients reacted to neither of the
individual components although the merthiolate complex as a whole
gave a positive test result. Forty-five of the merthiolate-positive
patients were tested subcutaneously with 0.5 ml of a 0.01%
merthiolate solution, i.e. a dose equal to that contained in one shot
of tetanus toxoid, for example. Nine patients developed a local
reaction at the site of the injection, and the area became eczematous
in four cases. In one of the patients the eczema spread over the
body, causing fever. Since
also react to merthiolate administered
intracutaneously, the vaccinator should avoid the use of a needle
whose outer surface has been contaminated when the vaccine was
aspirated from the bottle. However, even when this precautionary
measure is taken, local reactions can be expected in such a high
percentage of merthiolate-sensitive persons that merthiolate in
vaccines should be replaced by another antibacterial agent.
6447032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
poisoning with nervous system, skeletal muscle, and
are presented of patients who ate the meat of a hog
inadvertently fed seed treated with fungicides containing ethyl
mercury chloride. The clinical, electrophysiological, and
toxicological, and in two of the patients the pathological data,
showed that this organic mercury compound has a very high toxicity
not only for the brain, but also for the spinal motoneurones,
peripheral nerves, skeletal muscles, and myocardium.
7359151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC490489Free PMC
the use of merthiolate as a preservative in
cytotoxic properties of 2 anti-lymphocytic globulin (ALG)
preparations were investigated in vitro by measuring the release of
51Cr from labelled human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, tonsil
lymphocytes and Chang cells, incubated with different concentrations
of ALG. One of the ALG preparations showed non-selective cytotoxicity
in the absence of complement. Evidence was obtained to suggest that
this effect was due to merthiolate (sodium
ethylmercurithiosalicylate) which had been added to the ALG as a
preservative during manufacture. The mercury concentration in the ALG
was found to be greater than that stated by the manufacturers. It
that the clinical use of such as ALG preparation might
lead to mercury accumulation in the tissues, with resulting toxic
The whole question of the use of merthiolate in the preparation of
sera for administration to human subjects needs to be reconsidered.
494313 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
okay to inject?
mercury levels in infants with omphaloceles treated with organic
and fixed tissues from infants with exomphalos treated by
thiomersal application were analysed for mercury content. The
that thiomersal can induce blood and organ levels of
organic mercury which are well in excess of the minimum toxic level
in adults and fetuses.
The analysis of fresh and fixed tissues must be carefully controlled
against normal tissues in order to interpret mercury levels
606172 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1545035Free PMC
appears to mean that even topical application can result in toxic
Ophthalmol Vis Sci.
ophthalmic preservative thimerosal on rabbit and human corneal
the mercurial-containing preservative thimerosal as an
antibacterial agent in ophthalmic drugs and solutions warranted an
investigation into its possible cytotoxic effects on the functional
and ultrastructural integrity of the corneal endothelium. No changes
in corneal thickness were observed during 5 hours' perfusion of the
endothelium of rabbit and human corneas with 0.0001 and 0.0005
percent thimerosal in glutathione bicarbonate Ringer's solution
(GBR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron
microscopy (TEM) of the endothelium of the 0.0001 percent group
revealed normal ultrastructure. SEM and TEM of the endothelium of
corneas perfused with 0.0005 percent thimerosal for 5 hours revealed
condensed mitochondria, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and cytoplasmic flaps
at the apical end of the cellular junctions. Perfusion of higher
concentrations (0.001 and 0.005 perecnt) of thimerosal in GBR
resulted in increases in corneal thickness after 2 hours and
irreversible ultrastructural damage to the endothelial cells by 5
hours. Corneas perfused with 0.01 and 0.1 percent thimerosal in GBR
showed a rapid and immediate increase in corneal thickness and
endothelial cell death and necrosis within 1 hour. It is postulated
that the mercury in thimerosal becomes bound to the cell membrane
protein sulfhydryl groups, causing an increase in cellular
that the prolonged exposure of the corneal
endothelium to thimerosal in the accepted antimicrobial dosage of
0.005 to 0.001 percent may result in functional and structural damage
to the endothelium.
844986 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article
the effects of feeding ethyl mercury chloride on four breeds
chickens namely Single Comb White Leghorn (S.C.W.L.), New
Hamsphire (N.H.), Iraqi (IRQ) and a cross (CRS.) S.C.W.L. X N.H. X
IRQ. were housed in small pens (20 females and 2 males each) and
given, in the diet, 40% wheat treatmed with ethyl mercury chloride,
for 88 days. Throughout the whole experiment all birds remained
active and showed no symptoms of toxicity. The Iraqi breed was
significantly higher than the other breeds with respect to egg
production. The results also indicated that mercury in egg white is
almost three times as much as that in the yolk, although there was no
significant difference between the breeds. The
kidney of the four breeds tended to accumulate the highest
amount of mercury. Significant differences appeared between sexes
according to liver and kidney.
White Leghorn and local breeds behaved the same, but N.H. had the
highest concentration of mercury in most tissues.
792857 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ethyl mercury chloride to chickens.
groups, 0, 5, 10 and 20%, of Single Comb White Leghorn chickens (30
males plus 30 females each) were fed a diet which contained either 0,
5, 10 or 20% ethyl mercury chloride dressed wheat for a period of 88
days. The wheat was dressed with the organic mercury compound at the
rate of 500 gm. ethyl mercury chloride per metric ton of wheat.
Therfore, the diets contained respectively 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg.
organic mercury compound/kg. With average daily feed consumption of
101, 102, 101 and 98 gm. by the individual birds of the respective
groups, the birds did not show any symptoms of disease during the
course of the study. Egg production, egg quality and mortality of the
treatment groups were comparable with those of the control group. The
amount of residual mercury in egg white and yolk was determined at
of egg white of the treatment groups was about three
times as much as that of egg yolk, and made its significant
appearance in the 20% group on the third day of the trial. The
concentration was increasing with time in both white and yolk and was
parallel to the concentration of the organic mercury in the diet. The
liver followed by the kidney of both sexes accumulated the highest
amounts of mercury. Tissues of female birds accumulated less mercury
than tissues of male birds did probably due to the passage of some of
the ingested mercury with the egg white and yolk. The results were
discussed on the basis that the kind of mercury compound, daily
intake and duration of treatment play major roles in the
determination of induced effects.
778821 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
mercury after chronic dosing of squirrel monkeys
dosed intranasally with saline or thiomersal (sodium
ethylmercurithiosalicylate, 0.002 percent w/v) daily for six months.
The total amounts of thiomersal given during the six months period
were 418 mug (low dose group) and 2280 mug (high dose group). This
was equivalent to 207 and 1125 mug mercury. The dose differential was
achieved by more frequent administration to the high dose group.
Mercury concentrations were significantly raised over control values
in brain (high dose group only), liver, muscle and kidney, but not in
in the kidney, moderate in liver and lowest in brain and
muscle. Much of the mercury was present in the inorganic form (37-91
percent). No evidence of toxicity due to thiomersal was seen in any
animal. Nevertheless accumulation of mercury from chronic use of
thiomersal-preserved medicines is viewed as a potential health hazard
804725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
drugs. II. Teratogenicities and tissue accumulation of
the conditions of this study, systemically or topically applied
thimerosal was found to have no teratogenic effect even when given in
concentrations approaching the 50% lethal dose of these compounds. A
topical and subcutaneous administration of thimerosal
to rabbits shows that a substantial concentration of mercury was
present in blood and tissues of the treated animals and their
offspring. Thimerosal was found to cross the blood-brain and placenta
1111489 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Topical as well
laryngeal obstruction presumed secondary to thiomersal (merthiolate)
patient treated his slight score-throat with a thiomersal first aid
spray. The next day, because of continued discomfort, he repeated its
use. Laryngeal obstruction followed within hours. Emergency
tracheostomy produced prompt improvement. Patch
an extreme spreading reaction to thiomersal. It is
our interpretation that the acute laryngeal obstruction was delayed
hypersensitivity to this first aid spray.
1235252 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1972 Jan 21;175(19):328-31.
mercury p-toluene sulfonanilide: lethal and reproductive effects on
mercury p-toluene sulfonanilide (active ingredient of Ceresan M) at a
dietary concentration of 30 parts per million (12.5 parts of mercury
per million) was lethal to adult ring-necked pheasants. Egg
production and survival of third-week embryos were sharply reduced
when breeders were maintained on feed containing 10 parts of this
compound per million (4.2 parts of mercury per million).
5008162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Genetics. Any agent that affects cell division and the mitotic spindle
apparatus resulting in the loss or gain of whole chromosomes, thereby
inducing an aneuploidy.
Genetics. A genetically unbalanced condition in which a
cell or an organism has a number of chromosomes that is not an exact
multiple of the haploid number for that species. E.g., trisomy 21 is a
form of aneuploidy.