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Starting in July 2018, Vaccination News will no longer be manually updating the news because I can no longer afford to do it and I get almost no financial help.  I have tried numerous solutions, including charging $10/yr but even that was too much for but a few people.

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Sandy Gottstein

President, Vaccination News, A Non-Profit Corporation

Measles severity in developing nations

Measles severity in developing nations

Ann Trop Paediatr 1999 Jun;19(2):125-34

Related Articles, Books, LinkOut

Measles: a disease that has to be eradicated.

Omer MI.

Department of Paediatrics, King Fah'd Specialist Hospital, Buraidah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The incidence of measles is on the decline but it still claims the lives of one million children annually worldwide. The devastating effects of the disease on the health and nutrition of children in developing countries and its high mortality are well documented. The rapid decay of maternal antibodies in infants in developing countries results in early susceptibility to the disease and hence the general recommendation to vaccinate at the age of 9 months. Sustained international efforts have raised global vaccination coverage rates to around 80% at which level it has remained static. Many countries in the western hemisphere have eliminated the disease by adopting aggressive strategies, which include one-off 'catch-up' mass campaigns to vaccinate all children aged 1-14 years, 'mop-up' campaigns targeting children who were missed during the 'catch-up' campaign, efficient routine vaccination services capable of reaching 90% of infants, strong surveillance activities, prompt outbreak response, and 'follow-up' campaigns every 2-4 years which target 1-4-year-old children. This success story coupled with the fact that measles has many biological features favouring eradication, and considering that it is a severe and lethal disease still prevailing in many areas, calls for immediate international adoption of eradication goals within a specified period of time.

Publication Types:

·         Review

·         Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10690252 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 


Med Trop (Mars) 1999;59(4 Pt 2):442-8 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut

[Micronutrients and tropical viral infections: one aspect of pathogenic complexity in tropical medicine]

[Article in French]

Malvy D.

Centre Rene Labusquiere/INSERM 330, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, France.

In tropical zones, uncertain living conditions, inadequate food intake, and poor medical facilities enhance unnecessary morbidity and mortality especially involving infants and young children. In addition to protein-caloric malnutrition, deficiencies in essential micronutrients have a specific health impact. Such deficiencies can be the direct cause of disease such as vitamin A deficiency and blindness or have a promoting effect by compromising immune status and increasing susceptibility to and severity of infectious diseases especially of viral origin. The promoting effect of micronutrient deficiency plays a significant role in measles, rotavirus-related diarrhea, and, to a certain extent, progression of HIV infection. Several examples are described to illustrate the relationship between tropical viral infection and micronutrients including vitamin A, selenium, and various other antioxidants. These examples highlight the effect of infectious disease on micronutritional status (vitamin A and measles) and the need to develop reliable, practical tools to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of dietary supplementation. In any case, improving living conditions and health programs such as the Expanded Vaccination Program are required and illustrate a transverse approach for prevention of infectious and non-infectious tropical disease. The relationship between micronutrients and infection is only one aspect of the multifactorial reality that must be dealt with in tropical medicine.

Publication Types:
  • Review
  • Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10901845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Rev Infect Dis 1983 May-Jun;5(3):452-9

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Measles: summary of worldwide impact.

Assaad F.

Nearly every measles infection results in well-recognized clinical disease. In nonimmunized populations almost every child will get measles early in life. The universality of the disease in nonimmunized communities, particularly those in the developing world, has led to a more or less passive acceptance of measles as an unavoidable risk of early life. The clinical spectrum of measles ranges from a mild, self-limiting illness to a fatal disease. Conditions encountered mainly in the developing world, e.g., unfavorable nutrition, high risk of concurrent infection, and inadequate case management -- particularly at home -- favor the development of complications and adverse outcome. Conversely, good clinical management of an otherwise healthy child, a situation seen mostly in the developed world, greatly influences the course of the disease. Hence many in the medical profession believe that measles is a mild disease except among populations living under particularly unfavorable conditions. Measles vaccine is effective in preventing disease in the individual and in controlling it in the community if it is given at the critical age when maternal antibodies wane and the risk of natural infection increases sharply and if a high immunization rate is maintained in the target population. The experience with immunization, particularly in sub-saharan Africa, is rewarding: mothers who had previously accepted measles as an unavoidable risk clamour for immunization of their children once its effectiveness has been demonstrated. No reason exists for measles to claim its present toll of morbidity and mortality. With extension of the Expanded Programme on Immunization of the World Health Organization, the impact of measles should progressively decline.

PMID: 6878998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Rev Infect Dis 1983 Mar-Apr;5(2):330-40 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut

Selective primary health care: strategies for control of disease in the developing world. IV. Measles.

Walsh JA.

Measles, a highly contagious viral disease, kills several hundred thousand infants and young children yearly. Essentially all children will become infected; at least 1% of those living in developing countries will die unless protected by immunization. In urban areas, peak incidence occurs in those younger than three years. The youngest and most undernourished children suffer the most severe complications and the highest risk of death. Diarrhea, malnutrition, pneumonia, and blindness associated with vitamin A deficiency are the worst complications. The infection is preventable by the timely administration of a potent vaccine. This endeavor requires a well-managed technical and administrative network that remains difficult to organize in many areas of the world. The vaccine is efficacious and has few adverse effects but must be provided to children during the short interval between loss of transplacentally acquired antibodies and the acquisition of natural infection. The improvements in heat stability of the vaccine increase the likelihood of providing potent vaccine, but a well-managed cold chain remains a prerequisite for any successful immunization program. Health education, improved management skills, publicity, and community support are all important factors for ultimately preventing the morbidity and mortality from this disease.

PMID: 6844806 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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